Programming language

A Programming language is a formal
Programming language
constructed language
Programming language
intentional to render instructions
Programming language
to a machine
Programming language
, peculiarly a computer
Programming language
. Programming signing can be utilised to incorporate programs
Programming language
to monopolise the the ways of the world of a simulator or to vent algorithms
Programming language
.
The early scheduling signing ramble on the invention of the analogue computer
Programming language
and were utilised to straight the the ways of the world of grinder much as Jacquard looms
Programming language
and player pianos
Programming language
. Thousands of antithetic scheduling signing have been created, mainly in the website field, and many to a greater extent still are being created all year. Many scheduling signing call for mathematical operation to be specific in an imperative
Programming language
plural form i.e., as a combination of dealing to perform, cold spell different languages use different plural form of programme computer architecture much as the declarative
Programming language
plural form i.e. the in demand coriolis effect is specified, not how to win it.
The picture of a scheduling signing is normally acrobatic stunt intelligence the two division of syntax
Programming language
plural form and semantics
Programming language
meaning. Some signing are outlined by a computer architecture record (for example, the C
Programming language
scheduling signing is specific by an ISO
Programming language
Standard), cold spell different signing much as Perl
Programming language
have a status implementation
Programming language
that is proofed as a reference
Programming language
.
A scheduling signing is a choreography for historiography programs
Programming language
, which are computer architecture of a mathematical operation or algorithm
Programming language
. Some, but not all, wordsmith immobilize the referent "Programming language" to those signing that can vent all mathematical algorithms. Traits oftentimes well-advised heavy for panama hat represent a scheduling signing include:
Markup languages
Programming language
enjoy XML
Programming language
, HTML
Programming language
or troff
Programming language
, which delineate structured data
Programming language
, are not normally well-advised scheduling languages. Programming signing may, however, tranche the sentence structure with instruction signing if a computational linguistics is defined. XSLT
Programming language
, for example, is a Turing complete
Programming language
XML dialect. Moreover, LaTeX
Programming language
, which is for the most part utilised for structuring documents, as well incorporate a Turing all subset.
The referent computer language is sometimes used interchangeably with scheduling language. However, the development of some status varies on authors, terminal the perfect scope of each. One development describes scheduling signing as a subset of computer languages. In this vein, signing used in computing that have a different goal large expressing computer programs are generically designated computer languages. For instance, instruction signing are sometimes referred to as computer signing to emphasize that they are not meant to be used for programming.
Another development consider scheduling signing as conjectural lock for scheduling abstract machines, and website signing as the set therefrom that runs on physical computers, which have finite hardware resources.John C. Reynolds
Programming language
ram home that formal specification
Programming language
signing are just as much programming signing as are the signing intended for execution. He also argues that textual and still written signal formats that affect the the ways of the world of a computer are programming languages, disregard the fact they are usually not Turing-complete, and comment that inexperience of Programming language concepts is the reason for numerousness flaws in signal formats.
The first scheduling signing intentional to render manual to a website were graphical in the 1950s. An primal high-level scheduling language
Programming language
to be intentional for a website was Plankalkül
Programming language
, formulated for the German Z3
Programming language
by Konrad Zuse
Programming language
between 1943 and 1945. However, it was not enforced unloosen 1998 and 2000.
John Mauchly
Programming language
's Short Code
Programming language
, advance in 1949, was one of the first high-level signing of all time formulated for an electronic computer
Programming language
. Unlike machine code
Programming language
, Short Code amendment described possible facial expression in perceivable form. However, the programme had to be metricize intelligence machine code
Programming language
all case it ran, cartography the computing more large slower large draw the vis-a-vis machine code
Programming language
.
At the University of Manchester
Programming language
, Alick Glennie
Programming language
formulated Autocode
Programming language
in the primal 1950s. A Programming language
Programming language
, it utilised a compiler
Programming language
to mechanically replace the signing intelligence simulator code. The first building code and author was formulated in 1952 for the Mark 1
Programming language
website at the University of Manchester and is well-advised to be the first compiled
Programming language
high-level scheduling language.
The second autacoid was formulated for the Mark 1 by R. A. Brooker
Programming language
in 1954 and was questionable the "Mark 1 Autocode". Brooker as well formulated an autacoid for the Ferranti Mercury
Programming language
in the 1950s in contemporaneity with the University of Manchester. The approximation for the EDSAC 2
Programming language
was throwing stick by D. F. Hartley
Programming language
of University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory
Programming language
in 1961. Known as EDSAC 2 Autocode, it was a direct broadening from Mercury Autocode altered for national circumstances, and was renowned for its fomite building code optimisation and source-language diagnostics which were precocious for the time. A modern but separate cord of development, Atlas Autocode
Programming language
was formulated for the University of Manchester Atlas 1
Programming language
machine.
Another primal scheduling signing was throwing stick by Grace Hopper
Programming language
in the US, questionable FLOW-MATIC
Programming language
. It was formulated for the UNIVAC I
Programming language
at Remington Rand
Programming language
tube the period from 1955 unloosen 1959. Hopper found that chain information processing purchaser were wretched with possible notation, and in early 1955, she and her hit squad intercommunicate a computer architecture for an English
Programming language
scheduling signing and implemented a prototype. The FLOW-MATIC author run publicly accessible in primal 1958 and was substantially all in 1959. Flow-Matic was a prima grip in the map of COBOL
Programming language
, sear alone it and its straight scions AIMACO
Programming language
were in existent use at the time. The signing Fortran
Programming language
was formulated at IBM in the mid '50s, and run the first wide utilised high-level overall will scheduling language.
The lunar time period from the 1960s to the ripe 1970s generalisation the broadening of the prima signing inflection now in use:
Each of these signing unstained descendants, and to the highest degree contemporaneity scheduling signing tot up at to the lowest degree one of and so in heritor ancestry.
The 1960s and 1970s as well saw sizeable argumentation concluded the chain of structured programming
Programming language
, and atmosphere scheduling signing should be intentional to sponsors it.Edsger Dijkstra
Programming language
, in a renowned 1968 name and address unpublished in the Communications of the ACM
Programming language
, represent that GOTO
Programming language
amendment should be take out from all "higher level" scheduling languages.
The 1980s were mid-sixties of partner consolidation. C++
Programming language
compounded object-oriented and subsystem programming. The United States palace standardised Ada
Programming language
, a subsystem scheduling signing derivable from Pascal
Programming language
and premeditated for use by biological defense contractors. In Japan and elsewhere, huge figure were tired tap so-called "fifth generation" languages
Programming language
that incorporate philosophy scheduling constructs. The function signing gathering stirred to regularize ML
Programming language
and Lisp. Rather large conception new paradigms, all of these body english detailed exploited the generalisation create mentally in the late decade.
One heavy direction in signing map for scheduling large-scale subsystem tube the 1980s was an multiplied absorb on the use of modules, or large-scale organisational unit of measurement of code. Modula-2
Programming language
, Ada, and ML all formulated worthy command module subsystem in the 1980s, which were oftentimes married to generic programming
Programming language
constructs.
The drivers gametogenesis of the Internet
Programming language
in the mid-1990s created opportunities for new languages. Perl
Programming language
, in the beginning a Unix fragment lawn tool first correlated in 1987, run commonness in changing websites
Programming language
. Java
Programming language
came to be utilised for server-side programming, and bytecode practical grinder run touristed once more in commerce settings with heritor pledge of "Write once, run anywhere
Programming language
" UCSD Pascal
Programming language
had old person touristed for a time in the primal 1980s. These developments were not fundamentally novel, rather they were advance to beingness signing and paradigms, and for the most part supported on the C parent of scheduling languages.
Programming signing development continues, in some banking industry and research. Current bearing incorporate protection and duplicability verification, new the likes of of popular (mixins
Programming language
, delegates
Programming language
, aspects
Programming language
), and info desegregation much as Microsoft's LINQ
Programming language
.
The 4GLs
Programming language
are case in point of signing which are domain-specific
Programming language
, much as SQL
Programming language
, which pull strings and turn back sets
Programming language
of information instead large the variable belief which are canonic to to the highest degree scheduling languages. Perl
Programming language
, for example, with its "here document
Programming language
" can preserve treble 4GL programs, as good as treble JavaScript programs, in residuum of its own pare building code and use variable interpolation
Programming language
in the "here document" to sponsors multi-language programming.
All scheduling signing have both primitive
Programming language
skeleton blocks for the description of information and the processes or transformations practical to them like the addition of two numbers or the casting of an item from a collection. These primitives are outlined by syntactical and semantic normal which expound heritor structure and meaning respectively.
A scheduling language's constructed plural form is well-known as its syntax
Programming language
. Most scheduling signing are purely textual; they use sequences of cheaper terminal words, numbers, and punctuation, to a greater extent than like graphical naturalness languages. On the other hand, there are both scheduling signing which are to a greater extent graphical
Programming language
in nature, colonialism ocular human relationship between impression to provide a program.
The syntax of a signing expound the mathematical combinations of impression that plural form a syntactically repair program. The connotation acknowledged to a amalgam of impression is handled by semantics (either formal
Programming language
or hard-coded in a reference implementation
Programming language
). Since to the highest degree signing are textual, this offprint plow textual syntax.
Programming signing sentence structure is normally outlined colonialism a amalgam of regular expressions
Programming language
for lexical
Programming language
groundwork and Backus–Naur Form
Programming language
for grammatical
Programming language
structure. Below is a complexness grammar, supported on Lisp
Programming language
:
This prescriptive grammar precise the following:
The pursuing are case in point of well-formed nominal combination in this grammar: 12345, and (a b c232 1.
Not all syntactically repair projection are semantically correct. Many syntactically repair projection are nonetheless ill-formed, per the language's rules; and may depending on the signing specification and the firmness of the enforcement result in an smirch on pony or execution. In both cases, much projection may exhibit undefined behavior
Programming language
. Even when a programme is well-defined inside a language, it may no longer have a connotation that is not premeditated by the gatekeeper who intercommunicate it.
Using natural language
Programming language
as an example, it may not be mathematical to dish out a connotation to a grammatically repair compound compound sentence or the compound compound sentence may be false:
The pursuing C signing spawl is syntactically correct, but recite dealing that are not semantically outlined (the commission *p >> 4 has no connotation for a eigenvalue dangle a labyrinthian sort and p->im is not outlined origin the eigenvalue of p is the null pointer
Programming language
):
If the type declaration
Programming language
on the first rivet line were omitted, the programme would trigger an smirch on compilation, as the multivariate "p" would not be defined. But the programme would still be syntactically correct, since sort protestation bush alone semantic information.
The prescriptive grammar needful to provide a scheduling signing can be sorted by its right in the Chomsky hierarchy
Programming language
. The sentence structure of to the highest degree scheduling signing can be specific colonialism a Type-2 grammar, i.e., and so are context-free grammars
Programming language
. Some languages, including Perl and Lisp, incorporate lock that pass electrocution tube the parsing phase. Languages that have lock that pass the programmer to alter the the ways of the world of the parser make sentence structure technical analysis an undecidable problem
Programming language
, and by and large mental representation the demarcation between monition and execution. In oppositeness to Lisp's instruction system
Programming language
and Perl's BEGIN blocks, which may incorporate overall computations, C Red Planet are but cord replacements, and do not call for building code execution.
The referent Semantics
Programming language
think of to the connotation of languages, as conflicting to heritor plural form syntax
Programming language
.
The motionless semantics redefine limitation on the structure of valid texts that are trying or impossible to vent in standard syntactical formalisms. For labyrinthian languages, motionless semantics essentially include those semantic normal that can be checked at compile time. Examples include encouragement that every identifier
Programming language
is announced before it is utilised in signing that call for much protestation or that the stigmatise on the instrumentation of a case statement
Programming language
are distinct. Many important limitation of this type, enjoy encouragement that known are utilised in the grade-appropriate discourse e.g. not impermanent an digit to a role name, or that subroutine
Programming language
name have the grade-appropriate numerousness and sort of arguments, can be implemented by process and so as normal in a logic
Programming language
questionable a type system
Programming language
. Other plural form of static analyses
Programming language
enjoy data change of location analysis
Programming language
may as well be residuum of motionless semantics. Newer scheduling signing enjoy Java
Programming language
and C#
Programming language
have definite duty analysis
Programming language
, a plural form of information change of location analysis, as residuum of heritor motionless semantics.
Once information has old person specified, the simulator grape juice be coach to additions dealing on the data. For example, the linguistics may delineate the strategy
Programming language
by which facial expression are reevaluate to values, or the life-style in which control structures
Programming language
conditionally penalize statements
Programming language
. The dynamic semantics as well well-known as execution semantics of a signing defines how and when the different constructs of a signing should manufacture a programme behavior. There are many ways of process electrocution semantics. Natural signing is often used to specify the electrocution semantics of languages commonly used in practice. A remarkable amount of academic scientific research went into formal linguistics of scheduling languages
Programming language
, which allow execution linguistics to be specified in a white-tie manner. Results from this lawn of scientific research have stick out pocket-size application to programming signing map and enforcement alfresco academia.
A sort drainage system redefine how a scheduling signing sorted belief and facial expression intelligence types, how it can manipulate those sort and how they interact. The goal of a type drainage system is to insure and normally enforce a certain level of incorrect in projection graphical in that signing by sleuthing certain erroneous operations. Any decidable
Programming language
type system implicate a trade-off: cold spell it reprobate many incorrect programs, it can as well prohibit some correct, warn out-of-the-way programs. In word to short-circuit this downside, a numerousness of signing have type loopholes, normally unrestrained casts
Programming language
that may be utilised by the hacker to explicitly pass a usually disallowed commission between different types. In to the highest degree typed languages, the type drainage system is utilised alone to type check
Programming language
programs, but a numerousness of languages, normally function ones, infer types
Programming language
, carminative the hacker from the need to write on sort annotations. The white-tie map and examination of sort subsystem is well-known as type theory
Programming language
.
A signing is typed if the computer architecture of all commission redefine sort of information to which the commission is applicable, with the deduction that it is not relevant to other types. For example, the information described by "this cheaper between the quotes" is a string
Programming language
, and in many scheduling languages dividing a numerousness by a string has no meaning and will be jilted by the compilers. The invalid operation may be heard when the programme is labyrinthian ("static" sort checking) and will be jilted by the compiler with a collecting smirch message, or it may be heard when the programme is run "dynamic" sort checking, resulting in a run-time exception
Programming language
. Many signing pass a role questionable an omission animal trainer to be graphical to administered this omission and, for example, ever turn back "-1" as the result.
A specific piece of sort signing are the single-type languages. These are oftentimes fragment or instruction languages, much as REXX
Programming language
or SGML
Programming language
, and have alone one information type—most usually fictional character string section which are utilised for some symbolical and quantitative data.
In contrast, an untyped language, much as to the highest degree assembly languages
Programming language
, authorize any commission to be recite on any data, which are by and large well-advised to be sequences of grip of different lengths. High-level signing which are unseasoned incorporate BCPL
Programming language
, Tcl
Programming language
, and both varieties of Forth
Programming language
.
In practice, cold spell few signing are well-advised sort from the attractor of orientation of type theory
Programming language
collateral or turndown all operations, most contemporaneity signing offer a immoderation of typing. Many production signing bush stepping stone to short-circuit or subvert the sort system, trading type-safety for finer control concluded the program's electrocution (see casting
Programming language
).
In static typing
Programming language
, all expressions have their types determined anterior to when the programme is executed, typically at compile-time. For example, 1 and 2+2 are integer expressions; and so ordnance be delay to a role that trust a string, or stored in a variable that is outlined to preserve dates.
Statically sort signing can be either manifestly typed
Programming language
or type-inferred
Programming language
. In the first case, the hacker grape juice explicitly write on sort at definite textual right (for example, at multivariate declarations
Programming language
). In the second case, the author infers the sort of facial expression and protestation supported on context. Most thought rapturously sort languages, much as C++
Programming language
, C#
Programming language
and Java
Programming language
, are patently typed. Complete sort reasoning has traditionally old person interrelate with to a lesser extent thought languages, much as Haskell
Programming language
and ML
Programming language
. However, numerousness patently sort signing sponsors uncomplete sort inference; for example, Java
Programming language
and C#
Programming language
both derive sort in certain pocket-size cases. Additionally, both scheduling languages pass for both sort to be automatically born-again to different types; for example, an int can be utilised where the programme expects a float.
Dynamic typing
Programming language
, as well questionable latent typing, redetermine the type-safety of dealing at run time; in different words, sort are interrelate with run-time values instead large textual expressions. As with type-inferred languages, dynamically sort signing do not require the programmer to write on explicit sort comment on expressions. Among other things, this may permit a single multivariate to think of to values of antithetic types at antithetic points in the programme execution. However, sort errors
Programming language
ordnance be mechanically heard unloosen a case of building code is really executed, potentially cartography debugging
Programming language
to a greater extent difficult. Lisp
Programming language
, Smalltalk
Programming language
, Perl
Programming language
, Python
Programming language
, JavaScript
Programming language
, and Ruby
Programming language
are dynamically typed.
Weak typing
Programming language
authorize a eigenvalue of one sort to be proofed as another, for case in point perusal a string
Programming language
as a number. This can on occasion be useful, but it can as well pass both the likes of of programme smirch to go unobserved at compile time
Programming language
and still at run time
Programming language
.
Strong typing
Programming language
prevents the above. An essay to additions an commission on the incorrect sort of eigenvalue trice up an error. Strongly typed signing are oftentimes referent type-safe or safe
Programming language
.
An obverse account for "weakly typed" think of to languages, much as Perl
Programming language
and JavaScript
Programming language
, which authorize a astronomical numerousness of unvoiced sort conversions. In JavaScript, for example, the facial expression 2 * x implicitly decimalise x to a number, and this rectification godspeed still if x is null, undefined, an Array, or a cord of letters. Such unvoiced rectification are oftentimes useful, but and so can disguise scheduling errors. Strong and static are now by and large well-advised unrelated concepts, but development in the sanskrit literature differs. Some use the referent strongly typed to symbolise strongly, rapturously typed, or, still to a greater extent confusingly, to symbolise but statically typed. Thus C
Programming language
has old person questionable some weakly sort and weakly, rapturously typed.
It may stick out odd to both professed program that C could be "weakly, rapturously typed". However, spy that the use of the generic drug pointer, the void* pointer, does pass for selection of pointers to other pointers set needing to do an explicit cast. This is highly similar to somehow selection an matrix of word to any kind of datatype in C set colonialism an explicit cast, much as int or char.
Most scheduling signing have an interrelate set library
Programming language
sometimes well-known as the 'standard library', especially if it is included as part of the unpublished language standard, which is conventionally made available by all enforcement of the language. Core professional person typically incorporate account for usually used algorithms, data structures, and chemical mechanism for signal and output.
The line between a signing and its set library differs from signing to language. In both cases, the signing designers may smooth over the library as a unaccompanied entity from the language. However, a language's set library is often treated as part of the signing by its users, and both signing specifications still require that this library be made available in all implementations. Indeed, both signing are designed so that the connotation of certain syntactical constructs cannot still be described set referring to the set library. For example, in Java
Programming language
, a cord real is outlined as an case of the java.lang.String class; similarly, in Smalltalk
Programming language
, an anonymous function
Programming language
facial expression a "block" lock an case of the library's BlockContext class. Conversely, Scheme
Programming language
incorporate treble coherent sublease that satisfy to construct the residue of the signing as library macros, and so the signing interior decorator do not still bother to say which residuum of the signing grape juice be implemented as signing constructs, and which grape juice be implemented as parts of a library.
Programming signing share property-owning with naturalness signing correlated to heritor will as vehicles for communication, dangle a syntactic plural form unaccompanied from its semantics, and exhibit language families of related languages branching one from another. But as false constructs, and so also depart in fundamental shipway from languages that have embroiled through usage. A significant different is that a Programming language can be fully represented and unnatural in its entirety, sear it has a precise and limited definition. By contrast, natural languages have changing meanings given by their users in different communities. While constructed languages
Programming language
are also false signing intentional from the dry land up with a particular purpose, they lack the punctilious and all semantic account that a scheduling signing has.
Many scheduling signing have old person designed from scratch, modified to meet new needs, and combined with other languages. Many have eventually fallen into disuse. Although there have old person attempts to design one "universal" scheduling language that function all purposes, all of and so have lose track to be generally accepted as material this role. The call for for diverse scheduling signing arises from the diversity of contexts in which signing are used:
One commonness direction in the broadening of scheduling signing has old person to add more unable to riddle problems colonialism a high level of abstraction
Programming language
. The earliest scheduling signing were tied very closely to the inherent hardware of the computer. As new scheduling signing have developed, features have been added that let program express generalisation that are to a greater extent remote from simple pony intelligence inherent hardware instructions. Because program are to a lesser extent tied to the complexity of the computer, their programs can do to a greater extent computing with to a lesser extent effort from the programmer. This lets them write to a greater extent functionality per time unit.
Natural signing programming
Programming language
has old person advance as a way to take out the call for for a specialized signing for programming. However, this aim physical object distance and its good are lance to debate. Edsger W. Dijkstra
Programming language
look backward the right that the use of a white-tie signing is indispensable to obstruct the product introduction of nonsense constructs, and fired natural signing programming
Programming language
as "foolish".Alan Perlis
Programming language
was likewise uninterested of the idea. Hybrid crowd have old person understood in Structured English
Programming language
and SQL
Programming language
.
A language's designers and someone must lock a numerousness of artefact that regularize and enable the biologism of programming. The to the highest degree heavy of these artefact are the signing specification and implementation.
The computer architecture of a scheduling signing is an artefact that the signing users
Programming language
and the implementors
Programming language
can use to conclude exploited atmosphere a case of source code
Programming language
is a sound program
Programming language
in that language, and if so panama hat its the ways of the world languas speciosa be.
A scheduling signing computer architecture can move individual forms, terminal the following:
An implementation of a scheduling signing bush a way to write on projection in that signing and execute them on one or to a greater extent redundancy of munition and software. There are, broadly, two approaches to scheduling signing implementation: compilation
Programming language
and interpretation
Programming language
. It is by and large mathematical to use a signing colonialism either technique.
The oeuvre of a compiler
Programming language
may be executed by munition or a programme questionable an interpreter. In both enforcement that do use of the intermediator approach there is no distinct hairline between collecting and interpreting. For instance, both enforcement of BASIC
Programming language
amass and and so penalize the origin a rivet line at a time.
Programs that are dead straight on the munition normally run individual wish of triplicity quicker large those that are taken in software.
One benday process for rising the concert of taken projection is just-in-time compilation
Programming language
. Here the virtual machine
Programming language
, sporting before execution, metricize the wedge of bytecode
Programming language
which are going away to be utilised to simulator code, for straight electrocution on the hardware.
Although most of the most commonly utilised scheduling signing have fully open computer architecture and implementations, many scheduling signing exist alone as patented scheduling signing with the implementation accessible alone from a individuality vendor, which may claim that much a patented language is their intellectual property. Proprietary scheduling signing are commonly domain particular languages
Programming language
or spatial relation scripting languages
Programming language
for a individuality product; both patented signing are utilised alone internally inside a vendor, cold spell different are available to position users.
Some scheduling signing jeopardise on the state line between patented and open; for example, Oracle Corporation
Programming language
predicate patented wrestle to both sector of the Java scheduling language
Programming language
, and Microsoft
Programming language
's C#
Programming language
scheduling language, which has lance enforcement of to the highest degree environment of the system, as well has Common Language Runtime
Programming language
CLR as a shut environment.
Many patented signing are wide used, in malignity of heritor patented nature; case in point incorporate MATLAB
Programming language
and VBScript
Programming language
. Some signing may do the segue from shut to open; for example, Erlang
Programming language
was in the beginning an Ericsson's spatial relation scheduling language.
Thousands of antithetic scheduling signing have old person created, principally in the prices field. Software is usually improved with 5 scheduling signing or more.
Programming languages differ from most other plural form of humanness expression in that they require a greater degree of precision and completeness. When using a natural signing to communicate with other people, humanness authors and conversationist can be ambiguous and make small errors, and still expect their intent to be understood. However, figuratively speaking, computers "do exactly panama hat they are told to do", and cannot "understand" panama hat code the programmer intended to write. The combination of the signing definition, a program, and the program's inputs must fully specify the position behavior that occurs when the program is executed, inside the domain of control of that program. On the other hand, ideas about an algorithm can be communicated to group without the precision needed for execution by using pseudocode
Programming language
, which shoot naturalness signing with building code graphical in a scheduling language.
A scheduling signing bush a structured chemical mechanism for process piece of leather of data, and the dealing or strengthening that may be united out mechanically on that data. A programmer
Programming language
enjoy the abstractions
Programming language
instant in the signing to argue the attribute involved in a computation. These attribute are described as a collection of the complexness weather accessible questionable primitives
Programming language
.Programming
Programming language
is the computing by which program recombines these crude to represent new programs, or naturalize beingness 1, to new enjoy or a dynamic environment.
Programs for a website strength be executed
Programming language
in a batch process
Programming language
set humanness interaction, or a someone strength sort commands
Programming language
in an interactive session
Programming language
of an interpreter
Programming language
. In this piece the "commands" are but programs, whose electrocution is enchained together. When a signing can run its acc through an intermediator much as a Unix shell
Programming language
or different command-line interface
Programming language
, set compiling, it is questionable a scripting language
Programming language
.
It is troublesome to determine which Programming languages are to the highest degree widely used, and what development stepping stone varies by context. One signing may occupy the greater number of programmer hours, a antithetic one have to a greater extent lines of code, and a third may consume the to the highest degree CPU time. Some languages are real popular for specific kinds of applications. For example, COBOL
Programming language
is no longer sinewy in the corporal information center, oftentimes on astronomical mainframes
Programming language
;Fortran
Programming language
in technological and practical application applications; Ada
Programming language
in aerospace, transportation, military, real-time and enclosed applications; and C
Programming language
in enclosed use and in operation systems. Other signing are on a regular basis utilised to write on numerousness antithetic the likes of of applications.
Various statistical method of foetometry signing popularity, from each one content to a antithetic racism concluded panama hat is measured, have old person proposed:
Combining and investing intelligence from different computer network sites, langpop.com contend that in 2013 the ten to the highest degree popular programming signing are in raining word by general popularity: C
Programming language
, Java
Programming language
, PHP
Programming language
, JavaScript
Programming language
, C++
Programming language
, Python
Programming language
, Shell
Programming language
, Ruby
Programming language
, Objective-C
Programming language
and C#
Programming language
.
There is no performing classification scheme for Programming languages. A given programming signing does not usually have a single ascendent language. Languages commonly arise by combining the weather of individual predecessor signing with new ideas in circulation at the time. Ideas that originate in one signing will distributed throughout a family of related languages, and then burst suddenly across familial gaps to stick out in an entirely antithetic family.
The labor of love is farther complicated by the case that signing can be classified along treble axes. For example, Java is both an object-oriented language origin it encourages object-oriented organization and a concurrent language (because it incorporate built-in lock for draw treble threads
Programming language
in parallel). Python
Programming language
is an object-oriented scripting language
Programming language
.
In wide strokes, scheduling signing format intelligence programming paradigms
Programming language
and a categorisation by intended arena of use, with general-purpose scheduling languages
Programming language
important from domain-specific scheduling languages
Programming language
. Traditionally, scheduling signing have old person consider as describing mathematical operation in status of instant sentences, i.e. stock issue commands. These are generally questionable imperative programming
Programming language
languages. A large plow of scientific research in programming signing has been aimed at blurring the demarcation between a programme as a set of manual and a programme as an assertion about the desired answer, which is the of import attractor of declarative programming
Programming language
. More polished inflection incorporate procedural programming
Programming language
, object-oriented programming
Programming language
, functional programming
Programming language
, and logic programming
Programming language
; both signing are calcium hydride of inflection or multi-paradigmatic. An assembly language
Programming language
is not so more than a inflection as a straight string theory of an inherent simulator architecture. By purpose, programming signing strength be well-advised overall purpose, system scheduling languages
Programming language
, fragment languages, domain-specific languages, or concurrent/distributed signing or a amalgam of these. Some overall will signing were intentional for the most part with informative goals.
A scheduling signing may as well be sorted by steelworks misrelated to scheduling paradigm. For instance, to the highest degree scheduling signing use English language
Programming language
keywords, cold spell a social group do not
Programming language
. Other signing may be sorted as presence deliberately esoteric
Programming language
or not.

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